Czech Republic

Constitution and administrative structure of the Czech Republic

National level. The Czech Republic has a parliamentary bicameral system (Chamber of Deputies and Senate). The Chamber of Deputies consists of 200 members, who are elected for four years according to proportional representation. The Senate is composed of 81 members serving six-year terms, whereas every two years one third of its members is replaced using a majority voting system. Every five years, the Chamber of Deputies and Senate jointly elect the State President.

Regional level. The Czech Republic is made up of 14 regions (kraje) created in the course of the administrative reform of 2000. The Region of South Moravia is a CENTROPE partner. Under the system of delegated central state administration, the regions mainly oversee the activities of the municipalities. The autonomous competencies of the regions are similar to those of the municipalities but located at a higher level (e.g. secondary schools, highways, etc.). Moreover, the regional self-governing units may submit draft legislation to parliament.

Local level. The 6,244 municipalities (obce) act as additional administrative units. The municipalities are also entrusted with the execution of central government functions. Overall, three types of municipalities can be distinguished: small municipalities only implement basic functions, while larger municipalities also execute special tasks and support smaller municipalities located in their environs. There also exist municipalities with extended competence, which have taken over the duties of the abolished former district offices. Currently, these municipalities form the most important pillar of public administration in the Czech Republic. Areas of autonomous municipal competence include e.g. housing, public transport and the local traffic and transport infrastructure.